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Cummins ISB4.5 CM2150 Fault Code: 559 PID: SPN: 157 FMI: 18 Injector Metering Rail 1 Pressure – Data Valid But Below Normal Operating Range – Moderately Severe Level.

Circuit Description
The pressure control loop relies on fuel pressure supplied to the high-pressure pump by the fuel gear pump. The engine control module (ECM) monitors rail fuel pressure and engine operating conditions and changes the flow command to maintain the proper rail fuel pressure. Changes to the flow command result in opening (or closing) of the fuel pump actuator to supply more (or less) fuel to the high-pressure pump.

Component Location
The high-pressure fuel pump is mounted to the gear housing on the intake side of the engine.

Conditions for Running the Diagnostics
This diagnostic runs continuously when the engine is operating.

Conditions for Setting the Fault Codes
The ECM has detected the measured fuel rail pressure is below the commanded fuel rail pressure by at least 250 bar [3625 psi] for 7 seconds.

Action Taken When the Fault Code is Active
-The ECM illuminates the amber CHECK ENGINE lamp and/or the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) immediately when the diagnostic runs and fails.

Conditions for Clearing the Fault Code
-To validate the repair, start the engine and let it idle for 1 minute.
-The ECM will turn off the amber CHECK ENGINE lamp and the fault code will go inactive immediately after the diagnostic runs and passes.
-The ECM will turn off the MIL after 3 consecutive ignition cycles that the diagnostic runs and passes.
-This fault code can also be cleared with INSITE™ electronic service tool.

Shop Talk
Before performing troubleshooting work, verify the vehicle’s system voltage by monitoring battery voltage in INSITE™ electronic service tool data monitor or by connecting a digital volt ohm meter to the batteries. This will help identify a potential system voltage issue. Refer to the OEM service manual for the specified voltage range and troubleshooting procedures.

If the engine will not start and Fault Code 559 comes active during cranking, but no speed sensor fault codes exist, monitor rail pressure with INSITE™ electronic service tool. The procedures referred to in this troubleshooting tree will also have checks for engine no start conditions.

Before servicing any fuel system components, (such as fuel lines, fuel pump, injectors, and so forth), which would expose the fuel system or internal engine components to potential contaminants prior to disassembly, clean the fittings, mounting hardware, and the area around the component to be removed. Dirt or contaminants can be introduced into the fuel system and engine if the surrounding areas are not cleaned, resulting in damage to the fuel system and engine. Use Procedure 000-009 in Section 0.

If fuel pressure is low, check the following:

Fuel system prime (make sure that there is fuel in the tanks and that the system is primed)
Fuel gear pump pressure.
If fuel gear pump pressure is correct, test for system leakage:

High-pressure pump leakage
Injector leakage
Fuel rail pressure relief valve.
If Fault Code 559 is inactive and there are no existing performance complaints, it is possible that the vehicle was run out of fuel or that the fault came active if the engine was not primed following fuel filter replacement. Clear the inactive fault code.

Fault Code 559 sets when the engine is running and measured rail fuel pressure remains at least 100 Bar [1450 psi] less than commanded pressure. Once detected, Fault Code 559 will remain active until the engine is turned off or until the measured rail fuel pressure matches the commanded rail fuel pressure. When a condition exists that causes Fault Code 559 to become active, it is typical for the fault code to become active when the engine is heavily loaded and become inactive when the engine is lightly loaded.

When Fault Code 559 occurs, the fuel system has lost its ability to maintain rail fuel pressure. Causes of this fault include:

-Fuel inlet restrictions
-Fuel filter plugging
-Fuel gear pump output low
-Fuel gear pump pressure regulator sticking or leaking
-High-pressure pump capacity decay (high leakage to drain from the high pressure pump)
-Fuel rail pressure relief valve leaks to drain
-Fuel rail pressure relief valve opens at too low a pressure
-Injector fuel circuit leaks to drain
-Pressure sensor reads more than 100 bar [1450 psi] lower than actual pressure
-Air in the fuel.

A few bubbles exiting the line during the test is expected. A foamy appearance is an indication of a leak that allows air to enter, a severe inlet restriction that causes cavitation, or a system that is not yet primed. If fuel inlet restriction is not excessive, the source of air entry can be isolated to one of the following:

-Suction fuel lines
-OEM fuel lines
-Suction-side fuel filter assemblies
-Stand-pipe(s) in the fuel tank(s).

The fuel rail pressure sensor can be checked. When checking the fuel rail pressure sensor accuracy, make certain the high-pressure fuel rail is not pressurized. The fuel pump, high-pressure fuel lines, and fuel rail contain very high-pressure fuel. Do not loosen any fittings while the engine is operating. Wait at least 10 minutes after shutting down the engine before loosening any fittings in the high-pressure fuel system, to allow the pressure to decrease to a lower level. There can be a significant amount of time waiting on the rail to depressurize to zero. It might become be necessary to manually relieve the pressure from the high-pressure fuel rail.

Intermittent ECM power supply connections can cause Fault Code 559. If the engine is running with an active Fault Code 559 and Fault Codes 449, 1911, or 2311 are not present, check the ECM power supply for intermittent connections or battery issues. Fault Code 1117 can also be active if this fault condition exits.

Inactive Fault Code/Exhausted Troubleshooting Tree:

Troubleshooting inactive Fault Code 559 can be very difficult. The fault code must be active for any of the outlined procedures in which the engine is operated during the test. For engines with high counts of inactive Fault Code 559 or if the troubleshooting tree has been exhausted, operate the engine on a chassis dynamometer or a diagnostic road test to duplicate the fault code. The most common causes of intermittent Fault Code 559 that are difficult to create are leaking high-pressure connectors that only leak when the engine and the fuel are hot, intermittent fuel supply restrictions, (such as debris floating in the fuel tank), and a fuel pressure relief valve that opens prematurely. Check the High Pressure Connector (HPC) and connector torque, and torque to specification if necessary. Operate the engine on a chassis dynamometer or conduct a diagnostic road test to duplicate the fault code. Use INSITE™ electronic service tool to log fuel system parameters during testing.